Data Collection and Analysis
The widespread availability of computers and inexpensive sensors makes it possible for residents to collect and analyse transport data in ways that could hardly be imagined just a few years ago. Residents can use purpose-built or smartphone sensors to monitor air quality, count traffic or track their trips. They can combine this data with open data sets (see: Transit Center: Data seeking open-minded transit agencies – on the benefits of open data) to create new applications or analyses. This page summarises crowdsourced data collection and analysis.
Sensor Based Data Collection
The ability of residents to collect data means that agencies can no longer hide behind data. It’s possible for neighbourhood residents to measure air quality or traffic volumes themselves. They can use this information to check official figures and/or develop their own ideas for solving transport problems.
For example, Japanese citizens were the first to publicly describe radiation impacts of the Fukushima earthquake, the government was forced to take action after citizens publicised the data. The European Commission’s Making Sense Project is developing a toolkit to help residents develop and use sensors to improve their environment.
In the transport-related sector sensors have been developed for:
GPS Tracking Data Collection
The GPS function in mobile devices enables applications to track users as they travel. These data are an excellent source of planning and transport information. They show paths actually taken by users (more accurate than questionnaires) and also enable users to add information to maps (for example: problem locations). It’s also possible to track users in real time to obtain actual speed information (e.g., WAZE tracks users to understand roadway congestion).
Tracking applications have been developed for all transport modes. Many bicycling and walking apps have been developed commercially as “fitness” apps. They represent a goldmine of information for planners and agencies, but require making agreements to obtain the data.
Open Source Data
Open source data is information provided by agencies and organisations (e.g., geographic and socio-economic data). Agencies make this data available for residents to use and analyse.
The great benefit of open source data is that residents often think outside of traditional silos. They combine data sets from different agencies and in different ways. This makes it possible to draw new conclusions and identify potential improvements, especially more comprehensive ideas.
Many agencies organise Hackathons to develop new apps using open source data, an excellent resource is: New York’s Pursuit of a More Useful App Contest from the Atlantic’s CityLab.
Public agencies are increasingly offering their data via open source. Many agencies require users to sign an agreement to access and use the data. It’s important that agencies offer data in machine readable formats rather than scanned copies of data tables via pdf.
The real value of resident-collected data is created when residents share their data so that others can analyse it and use it in their own applications (in other words, it’s good for residents to provide open access to their data, just like it’s good for government to do so).
There are a variety of networks developed to share user collected data. Often sensor builders create their own data sharing network on the Internet as part of the project. For example you can go to the Smart Citizen site to see all the data collected with the Smart Citizen environmental data sensors worldwide.
More information about data networks is available from the following resources:
Blog Posts: Data
ProPublica has developed a very effective interactive application that shows the chance of being killed if you are a pedestrian (30-years old, average for all ages, and 70-years old). You can roll on the app’s X-axis to see the likelihood of being killed when hit by a car going at different speeds. It’s a good tool […]
Tom Saunders of NESTA has written an excellent post: Power to the people: how cities can use digital technology to engage and empower citizens. It recommends four strategies: Resist the temptation to build an app; Think about what you want to engage citizens for; Remember there’s a world beyond the internet; and, Pick the right question for […]
There are many new opportunities for people to help collect and analyse data and help improve cities. Here are a couple new resources I’ve just discovered: CleanSpace – personal air quality monitors; CITI-SENSE project – an EU funded research project designed to help facilitate creation of a “sensor-based Citizens’ Observatory Community for improving quality of life […]
An article in the EU’s online research magazine Horizon, by Fintan Burke titled: How a new generation of games is changing minds (4 April 2016) describes reflective games. It begins: In the last 30 years gaming has grown from a niche hobby to the world’s most profitable form of entertainment. Now, researchers are investigating how they […]